Kalmar Asalin

THE

WORD

Vol. 20 DARAJAR, 1914. A'a. 3

Copyright, 1914, da HW PERCIVAL.

GAGARAU.

Ghostwararrun fatalwa na Mazaje Matattu.

MENE aka faɗi game da fatalwowin mutane masu rai ("Kalman," Vol. 18, Nos. 3 da kuma 4) game da halittar su, yadda ake gina su, da kuma abin da ya kasance mahallinsu, al'amari ne na duniyar tunani, wanda yake gaskiya ne game da tunanin fatalwowin mutane. Kusan dukkan fatalwowi tunani ne fatalwa wanda mutane suka kirkira yayin da mazajen ke raye a jikinsu na zahiri; amma a lokuta da dama, tunani, bayan ya fita daga jikinsa na zahiri, na iya zama a yanayi na musamman da zai haifar da sabon fatalwar tunani.

Akwai manyan abubuwa guda uku da ke tsakanin fatalwowin mamatan da kuma fatalwar mutanen da suka mutu. Na farko, ana kirkirar fatalwowi na matattun mutane bayan mutuwa, yayin da ake tunanin fatalwowin mamatan mutane yayin rayuwa, kuma suna ci gaba da wanzuwa a duniyar tunani tun bayan mutuwar jiki na zahirin mutumin da ya kirkiro tunanin fatalwa. Na biyu, fatalwar mai mutu’a tana so kuma tana shafar jikin mutum, kuma ana ciyar da shi ta wurin sha'awar mai rai, waɗanda ke da ƙarfi, da sha’awa, kuma galibi ba na dabi’a ba ne; alhali kuwa tunanin fatalwar mamaci baya tasiri ga jikin mutum, amma tunanin mutum daya ne, kuma galibi tunanin mutane da yawa masu rai. Na uku, fatalwar mutumin da ya mutu shaidan ne mai gaskiya, ba shi da lamiri kuma ba shi da ɗabi'a, kuma yanki ne mai ƙwazo da son kai, fyaɗe, mugunta, da sha'awa; yayin da, fatalwar tunanin mataccen mutum fatalwar tunani iri ɗaya ce lokacin da mutumin yake da rai, amma mutumin bai bayar da wata mahimmanci don ci gaba da fatalwar ba. Fatalwar mutane da suka mutu ba su da lahani idan an kwatanta su da marmarin fatalwar mutanen da suka mutu.

Aljani da mamacin ya bar su sune wadanda aka ambata a sama ("Kalman," Vol. 18, Nos. 3 da kuma 4) kamar yadda fatalwa marasa tsari kuma kamar yadda ake bayyana fatalwowi da yawa ko kuma wadanda aka ayyana; gaba, tunanin fatalwowi irin su fatalwar talauci, fatalwar bakin ciki, fatalwar juyayi, fatalwar duhu, tsoron fatalwa, fatalwar lafiya, fatalwar cuta, fatalwar banza; ci gaba, fatalwar an samar da shi ba da sani ba, kuma irin waɗannan ana samar da su da niyya don cim ma wani maƙasudi (Vol. 18, p. 22). Sannan akwai fatalwar tunanin dangi, daraja, alfahari, duhu, mutuwa, da kuma nasarar dangi. Sannan fatalwar kabilanci ko ta kasa, ta al'ada, yaki, ikon teku, mulkin mallaka, kishin kasa, fadada yankuna, kasuwanci, abubuwanda suka sabawa doka, akidar addini, da karshe, tunanin fatalwa na tsawon shekaru.

Ya kamata a fahimta cewa tunani ba fatalwa ce ba. Fatalwar tunanin mamacin ba tunani bane. Tunanin mamacin kamar wani ɓoye ne, wanda ba shi da tunanin asalinsa ko na waɗanda suka kirkira shi. Akwai bambanci tsakanin fatalwar tunanin mutumin mai rai da kuma fatalwar mutumin da ya mutu, wanda yake kama da na tsakanin fatalwar mutumin da yake rayuwa da fatalwar jikin mutum bayan mutuwa.

Yayin rayuwar mutumin, fatalwar tunanin tana raye; bayan mutuwar mutumin, fatalwar tunani kamar kwatancen banza ce; yana aiki ta atomatik, sai dai in tunanin wani yayi bisa ga irin tunanin da ya samu daga fatalwar. Sannan ya tsawaita wanzuwar fatalwar. Wani mutum ba zai iya haɗa kansa da tunanin ruhun mamaci ba ko kuma ya dace da tunanin mamacin a cikin kansa fiye da yadda zai iya yin wannan da ruhin mamaci; amma mutum mai rai na iya yin aiki daidai da abubuwan jin daɗin da yake samu daga tunanin fatalwar matattu.

Fatalwar tunani tana a haɗe da kuma wahalar da mai rai, kamar yadda fatalwar zahirinta za a iya haɗawa da ɗaukar wata jiki mai rai, lokacin da waccan jikin ta isa kewayon tasirin ta. Game da fatalwa ta zahiri, kewayon tasirin magnetic ba ya wuce feetan ƙafa ɗari. Distance baya ƙidayawa game da yanayin fatalwar tunani. Matsakaicin tasirinsa ya dogara da yanayi da batun tunani. Fatalwar tunani bazai zo tsakanin tunanin mutum wanda tunaninsa ba irin wannan dabi'a bane ko kuma ya damu da wani batun makamancin haka.

Gabaɗaya magana ce, gaskiyane cewa tunanin tunanin mutane yana tursasa tunanin kasancewar fatalwar tunani. Maza ba sa tunani, hankalinsu ya tashi. Sun yi imani sun yi tunani, alhali kuwa hankalinsu yana ta birgima.

Tunani ya kusanci aiwatar da tunani yayin da ya kasance kai tsaye kuma ya rike wani al'amari na tunani. Kusan yadda ake yin wannan abu a bayyane yake idan an bincika ayyukan tunanin mutum ko na tunanin wasu.

Aljani da ke tunanin mamaci matsaloli ne na tunanin kai; suna wanzuwa cikin yanayin tunani na duniya kuma, bayan mahimmancin da ke cikinsu ya tafi, suna cikin kaya mara nauyi. Irin wadannan fatalwokan tunani sahabbai ne ga waɗanda suka rasa 'yancin tunani. Mutanen duniya suna tunanin tunanin fatalwowin matattu. Wadannan fatalwowi masu tunani suna shafan mutane ta wasu kalmomi da jumloli. Wadannan fatalwowin suna girgiza su ta hanyar amfani da wadannan kalmomin, lokacin da ma'anar wadannan kalmomin kamar yadda aka fara amfani da su basa nan. "Na Gaskiya, Kyau, da Mai Kyau", yana nufin wasu sharuɗɗan kalmomin Girkawa waɗanda Plato yayi amfani da su don shigar da tunani mai girma. Sun kasance sharuddan fasaha da iko. Suna da ma'anar fasaha na nasu, wanda kuma ya dace da wannan shekarun. Waɗannan mazaunin kalmomin sun fahimci amfani da ma'anar waɗannan shekaru waɗanda suke kan hanyar tunani. A kwanakin baya, lokacin da mutane ba su fahimci tunanin da Plato ya bayar ga sharuddan ba, kalmomin sun kasance kamar harsashi. Lokacin da aka fassara shi da amfani da shi cikin harsuna na zamani ta hanyar mutanen da ba su fahimci tunanin da ake gabatar da kalmomin Girka na ruhaniya na asali ba, waɗannan kalmomin suna ɗauke da fatalwa ne kawai. Tabbas, akwai ƙaƙƙarfan iko a cikin waɗannan kalmomin Turanci, amma ma'anar asali baya nan. Gaskiya, kyakkyawa, mai kyau, a ma'anar zamani, ba su da ikon sanya mai sauraro kai tsaye tare da tunanin Plato. Haka abin yake game da kalmomin “Loveaunar ƙauna”, “Manan mutum”, “Thean Rago na Allah”, “Bea haifaffe ”a haifaffe”, “Haske na duniya”.

A zamanin yau kalmomin nan '' gwagwarmaya don wanzuwar '', "Tsira da Fittest", "Tsayar da kai shine Dokar Farko ta Halittar", "Sainarshen Ranar terarshe", "Littafin Maɗaukaki", suna zama ko sun zama abin hawa don fatalwar tunani. Ba a gabatar da waɗannan sharuɗɗan abubuwan da maganan suka bayyana ba, amma ba komai jumlolin kalmomi ne na tufafi waɗanda aka tsara ba, hangen nesa na rashin tsari.

Fatalwar tunani wani abu ne mai hana mutum tunani. Fatalwar tunani wani cikas ne ga ci gaban kwakwalwa da ci gaba. Idan fatalwar tunani tana cikin tunanin mutane tana jujjuya tunaninsu ga yadda ta mutu da yadda aka kulla.

Kowane al'umma tana cike da tunanin fatalwar mutanen da ta mutu, da tunanin fatalwar tunanin wasu al'umman. Idan aka sami fatalwar tunani - ba tunani ba - daga wata al'umma ba zai yi illa ya cutar da wadanda suka karba ba, da kuma jama'ar kasa. don bukatun wata al'umma suna bayyana ne ta hanyar tunaninsu na lokacinsu da kuma takamaiman mutane; amma a lokacin da wata al'umma wacce take da wasu buƙatu ko ta wani zamani dabam, sauran mutanen da suke ɗaukar ta ba su fahimci dokar da za ta iya biyan bukatun da lokaci ba, don haka ba za su iya amfani da fatalwar tunanin ba, kamar yadda yake a waje. na lokaci da wuri.

Rawanin mamatan mutanen da ke mutuwa cikas ne ga ci gaba kuma suna da iko musamman a kan tunaninsu a makarantun kimiyya, kan mazaje a kotuna na shari'a, da kuma waɗanda ke tsunduma cikin tsarin addinin.

Bayanan da binciken kimiyya ya tabbatar suna da wasu dabi'u, kuma yakamata su zama masu taimakawa wajen tabbatar da wasu bayanan. Dukkanin abubuwa kamar yadda aka tabbatar tabbas gaskiya ne, akan jirgin kansu. Ka'idojin da suka shafi gaskiya da kuma abubuwanda ke haifar da abubuwanda suke haifar dasu, ba koyaushe gaskiya bane kuma yana iya zama fatalwa, wadanda ke mamaye wasu kwakwalwa a hanyar bincike kuma yana kange su daga tabbatar da wasu hujjoji ko ma ganin wasu abubuwan. Wannan na iya zama saboda tunanin fatalwowin mutane ne, amma yawanci yakan haifar da tunanin fatalwowin matattu ne. Rashin fahimtar ka'idar gado shine fatalwar tunanin da ya hana mutane ganin wasu tabbatattun abubuwa, menene waɗannan bayanan suka fito, kuma daga lissafin wasu abubuwan da basu da alaƙa da farkon bayanan.

Yin gado yana iya zama gaskiya game da sifofin mutum da sifofin mutum, amma gaskiya ba shi da ma'anar hauka, kuma ba gaskiya bane game da yanayin tunanin mutum. Siffofi na jiki da halaye suna haifar da iyaye ga yara; amma dokokin watsawa ba a san su sosai ba, da yawa daga yaran da ke da aure ba a dubasu da mamaki ko da kuwa sun kasance kansu masu rarrabuwa a jiki, ba don yin magana da halin kirki da yanayin tunaninsu ba. Ruhun tunani na ka'idar kimiyya game da magada shine ya shiga cikin tunanin masanin kimiyyar lissafi, cewa wadannan tunanin dole ne suyi daidai da fatalwar, kuma don haka lamurran kamar Rembrandt, Newton, Byron, Mozart, Beethoven, Carlyle, Emerson da sauran wurare masu ban mamaki. , ba a gani daga gani, lokacin da marasa hankali suka yarda da "Dokar Girmama". Wannan “dokar ta gado” fatalwar tunanin mutane ne, wanda ke iyakance bincike da tunanin masu rai.

Tunanin gado ba tunanin fatalwar gado bane. Yana da kyau cewa hankalin mutane su damu da tunanin gado; tunani ba shi da 'yanci kuma ba zai iyakance ta hanyar ilimin kur’ani ba; 'yan abubuwan da aka sani game da abubuwan da aka samo asali na zahiri ya kamata a kiyaye su kuma suyi tunani a kansu; tunani ya kamata ya kewaya cikin wadannan bayanan kuma yayi aiki da yardar kaina kuma karkashin tursasa bincike. Sannan akwai mahimmancin tunani; sabbin hanyoyin bincike zasu bude kuma za'a tabbatar da sauran bayanan. Lokacin da tunani na dabi'a, sakamakon bincike, yake aiki, bai kamata a kyale shi ya huta ba, kuma ya zama tsayayyen ta wurin bayanin "dokar gado".

Lokacin da tunanin wahalar mutum ya mamaye tunanin mutum, mutumin ba zai iya ganin komai ba, ballantana ya sami wani tunani sai abin da fatalwar tunanin ta tsaya. Duk da yake wannan gaskiyane gabaɗaya, ba shi da izinin wakilci kamar yadda ya shafi batun kotunan shari'a da coci. Ghostwararrun fatalwowi da suka mutu suna da goyan bayan koyarwar ikon majami'u da kuma koyarwar da ta gabata da kuma ɗabi'un ta adawa da yanayin zamani.

Tunanin fatalwar mamaci ya hana mahimmin tunani game da cin gashin kai don bunkasa rayuwar ruhaniya ta addini, da yin adalci a kotuna. Irin wannan tunanin na addini kaɗai an yarda dashi kamar yadda ake tsara shi bayan lakanin tunanin matattu. Tsarin fasaha da tsari na yau da kullun da kuma yin amfani da su a kotuna, a yau, da kuma irin waɗannan cibiyoyin da aka zartar kamar yadda ake tafiyar da ma'amala da dabi'un mutane a ƙarƙashin dokar gama gari, ana haɓaka su kuma ana aiki da su a ƙarƙashin tasirin tunanin fatarar lauyoyi. Akwai canje-canje na ci gaba a cikin ilimin addini da na doka, saboda maza suna ta ƙoƙarin kawar da kansu daga fatalwowi. Amma waɗannan biyun, addini da doka, ƙaƙƙarfan ikon fatalwa ne, kuma a ƙarƙashin ikonsu duk wani canji a cikin tsari na abubuwa akwai tsayayya.

Yana da kyau a yi aiki a ƙarƙashin ikon fatalwar tunanin idan ba abin da ya fi kyau a tsara bayan, kuma idan mutum ba shi da tunanin kansa. Amma mutane ko kuma mutane, a cikin sabbin yanayi, tare da sabbin abubuwan motsa rai da tunani na kansu, yakamata su ƙi ruhun matattu. Yakamata su kawo karshen fatalwar, su fashe.

Fatalwar tunani takan fashe dashi ta hanyar bincike na gaskiya; ba ta hanyar shakku ba, amma ta hanyar ƙalubalantar ikon abin da fatalwar take wakilta, kamar yadda kimiyya, addini, da taken yanki, canons, ka'idoji, da amfani. Bincike mai ci gaba tare da ƙoƙari don ganowa, bayyana, inganta, zai fashe tsari kuma ya zubar da tasirin fatalwar. Binciken zai bayyana asalin, tarihi, dalilai na haɓaka, da ƙimar ainihin abin da fatalwar take saura. Koyarwar kafara daga gafara, gafarar zunubai, tsauraran tunani, bautar Cocin Katolika, tsauraran koyarwar da alkalai ke yankewa a shari'ance za su fashe tare da tunanin fatalwar matattu.