Kalmar Asalin

THE

WORD

JANUARY 1916.


Copyright, 1916, da HW PERCIVAL.

MUTANE DA ABUWA.

Mene ne yawanci ake nufi da kalmar “Rai” kuma ta yaya ya kamata a yi amfani da kalmar Soul?

Ana amfani da kalmar ta hanyoyi daban-daban. Wadanda suke amfani da shi suna da matsayin doka kawai wadanda ba su san abin da suke niyya su ba da shi. Abinda kawai suke da hankali shine cewa ba wani abu bane; wannan ba wani abu bane da ya shafi zahirin halitta. Haka kuma, ana amfani da kalmar ba tare da bambanci ba, kamar yadda yake a zahiri inda akwai digiri da yawa a ci gaban kwayoyin halitta, kuma babu wani tsarin da aka yarda da zai kirkiri wadannan digiri. Masarawa sun yi magana game da rayuka bakwai; Plato na mai ruhu sau uku; Kiristoci suna maganar rai a matsayin wani abu wanda ya bambanta da ruhu da jikin mutum. Ilimin falsafa na Hindu yayi magana akan nau'ikan rayuka, amma yana da wahala a faɗi bayanan a cikin tsarin. Wasu marubutan ilimin ra'ayoyi sun bambanta tsakanin rayuka uku - ruhun allah (buddhi), ruhin mutum (manas), da kama, dabbar dabba. Marubutan ilimin tauhidi basu yarda da abin da yakamata ayi amfani da shi ba. Don haka babu bayyananne, babu gamsasshen magana, fiye da wannan wanda kalmar ta ƙunsa a rubuce-rubucen ilimin kimiyya daban-daban fannoni na ganuwa. Saboda haka, ba shi yiwuwa a faɗi abin da yawanci ake nufi da kalmar rai.

A cikin jumlar magana na gama gari kamar “yana ƙauna da zuciya da rai,” “Zan ba da raina saboda shi,” “buɗe raina gare shi,” “idi na rai da ƙoshin hankali,” “idanu masu rai,” “dabbobi masu rayuka, ”“ rayukan matattu, ”ƙara da rikice-rikice.

Da alama ɗayan fasalin guda ɗaya shine cewa rai yana nufin wani abu mara ganuwa kuma mai rikitarwa, sabili da haka ba na batun duniya ba ne, kuma kowane marubuci yana amfani da kalmar ta rufe wannan sashin ko ɓangarorin abubuwan da ba a ganuwa ba kamar yadda yake jin daɗin.

A cikin waɗannan ana ba wasu ra'ayoyi game da yadda yakamata ayi amfani da kalmar kalmar.

Abubuwa suna bayyana a kowane lokaci na fitar fitarwa, abubuwa suna shayar da fitar. Lokacin da abu ya sha fitar da kansa, to yana fitar da kansa kamar mahaukata; watau ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu, raka'a ɗaya. Kowane ɗayan rukunin yana da damar, ko da ba dama nan da nan ba, na zama mafi girman abubuwan da ake tunanin. Kowane ɗayan ɓangare lokacin da aka fitar da numfashi yana da bangare mai juzu'i, ma'ana, bangare ɗaya yana canzawa, ɗayan kuma baya canzawa. Canjin sashi shine bangare wanda yake jujjuyawa, canji kuma shine bangare mara bayyana. Bangaren da aka bayyana shine ruhi da ruhi, karfi da kwayoyin halitta.

Wannan tushen ruhi da ruhi ana samun shi ta hanyar dukkan canje-canjen da suke cin nasarar juna a lokacin bayyanuwar.

Wani ɓangaren mutum yana shiga cikin haɗuwa tare da sauran raka'a ɗ onye, ​​amma baya rasa asalilinsa, kodayake bashi da asali a farkon.

A zahirin rayuwar mutum daga matakin farko na ruhaniya zuwa matakai na karshe na concretion, shine, a cikin zahirin abinda ya shafi jiki, ruhi a hankali zai rasa mukamin sa, kuma kwayoyin halitta sun sami hauhawa a wasu matakai. Ana amfani da kalmar karfi a maimakon ruhi, wanda yayi dace dashi, yayin da ake amfani da kwayoyin halitta a maimakon rai.

Wanda ya yi amfani da kalmar magana kada ya yi tunanin ya gama da kalmar rai kuma ya san abin da ke ciki. A zahirin gaskiya, yana iya zama cewa ya san komai kankantarsa ​​kamar yadda ya san abin da rai. Ya san yanayin kamannin yadda wasu halaye da kaddarorin kwayoyin halitta suke, amma game da abin da ke tattare da wannan, ban da waɗannan, bai sani ba, aƙalla muddin tsinkayen tunaninsa shine hanyar da bayanai ke bijiro masa.

Kada a yi amfani da ruhi da rai da hankali a matsayin ma'ana kamar kalmomi. A cikin duniyoyi akwai umarni bakwai ko azuzuwan rayuka akan jirage hudu. Umarni bakwai na rayuka nau'ikan biyu ne: masu sauko rayuka da masu hauhawa, da tilastawa da juyin halitta. Sojojin da ke saukowa suna samun kuzari, da kwarin gwiwa, da karfafawa zuwa ga aiki da ruhu. Rayukan masu hauhawar sune, ko kuma idan ba haka ba to ya kamata, a tashe su kuma a hankali. Hudu daga cikin umarni bakwai sune rayukan Halittu, kowane umarni yana da digiri masu yawa a cikin duniyar da yake nasa. Ruhun yana jawo ran mutum mai saukowa zuwa kan hanyar yarda daga ruhaniya ta ruhu zuwa ga wani tabbataccen jiki ta hanyar nau'ikan rayuwa da nau'ikan yanayi da yanayi, har sai ya bunkasa ko kuma ya kasance cikin yanayin jikin mutum. Ruhun ko yanayi yana turawa rai gaba gaba muddin dai ya shafi, amma tilas ne ya zama ya tashi ta hanyar ruhi mai hauhawa a kan hanyar juyin halitta, ta fuskoki daban-daban na kowane umarni uku daga mutum zuwa mutum mai mutuwa. . Kurwa ita ce magana, asalin rayuwa da ruhi, da rayuwa da kuma kasancewa cikin tunani.

Don rarrabe tsakanin umarni bakwai muna iya kiran masu sauko rayuka masu numfashi-rayukan, rayukan rai, masu-rai, masu-tara; kuma zuwa sama ya yi umarni da dabbobi, da rayukan mutane, da masu mutuwa. Game da na huɗu, ko tsari na jima'i, bari a fahimci cewa kurwa ba ta yin jima'i. Yin jima'i dabi'a ce ta zahirin rayuwa, wanda dole ne dukkan fuskoki su fusata kafin a tashe su akan hanyar juyin halitta daga tunani. Kowane umarni yana haɓaka sabuwar ma'ana a cikin ruhu.

Dokoki huɗu na ruhaniya ba su da ikon zama marasa mutuwa ba tare da taimakon tunani ba. Sun wanzu kamar numfashi ko rayuwa ko kuma siffofin na dogon lokaci, sannan kuma suna rayuwa a cikin jiki na dogon lokaci. Bayan wani lokaci sun daina wanzuwa a matsayin rayuka a cikin jiki kuma dole ne su wuce ta wani canji wanda ya faru zuwa kisa. Sannan daga canji akwai wani sabon tsari, sabon abu, wanda ake ci gaba da ilimi ko gogewa a wannan tsari.

Lokacin da hankali ya haɗu da rai don ɗaga shi, hankali ba zai iya yin nasara da farko ba. Jikin dabba ya fi ƙarfin tunani kuma ya ƙi a tashe shi. Don haka ya mutu; tana rasa siffarta; amma daga muhimmin kasancewarsa wacce ba za'a iya rasa tunanin shi yakan kira wani tsari. Hankali ya yi nasara wajen daukaka rai daga dabba zuwa ga mutum. A nan rai dole ne ya zabi ko yana so ya koma ga dabba ko kuwa ya ci gaba zuwa ga mutum mara mutuwa. Yana samun madawwamiyar rayuwarsa idan ya san asalinsa baya kuma da tunanin kansa wanda ya taimake shi. Sannan abin da rai ya zama tunani, da tunaniyar da ta daukaka ruhi don ta zama tunani zata iya wuce abubuwan da aka bayyanan a cikin halittu hudun da ba a bayyana su ba, kuma ya zama guda da Ruhi na Allahntaka na dukkan An bayyana abin da wannan rai a cikin babban editan "Soul," Fabrairu, 1906, Vol. II, MAGANAR.

Akwai rai ko ruhi wanda yake da alaƙa da kowane ɓangaren kwayoyin halitta ko yanayi, da bayyane da bayyane; tare da kowane jiki, ko jikin ya kasance ma'adinai, kayan lambu, dabba ko na samaniya, ko ƙungiyar siyasa, masana'antu ko ilimi. Abin da ya canza shine jiki; abin da baya canzawa, yayin da yake rike da jiki mai canzawa hade da ita, shine rai.

Abin da mutum yake so ya sani ba shi da yawa game da yawan da nau'ikan rayuka; yana so yasan menene ran ɗan Adam. Soulan Adam bashi da hankali. Mai hankali ba ya mutuwa. Soulan Adam baya mutuwa, kodayake yana iya mutuwa. Wani yanki na tunani ya haɗu da ruhin ɗan Adam ko ya gangara zuwa cikin jikin mutum; kuma wannan ana kiransa incarnation ko reincarnation, kodayake ajalin bai yi daidai ba. Idan zuciyar dan Adam bata bada juriya da yawa ba ga tunani, kuma idan hankali yaci nasarar dalilin kasancewarsa, to ya tayar da dan adam daga yanayin ruhin mutum zuwa matsayin mai mutuwa. To, abin da ke mutun mutum zai zama mara-rai. Kiristanci, musamman koyarwar aikin kafara, an kafa su ne akan wannan gaskiyar.

A wani yanayi na takaitaccen yanayi da iyakantaccen rai ruhin dan Adam tsari ne mai ma'ana da ban sha'awa, abin rufe jiki ko fatalwar jikin mutum, wanda yake dauke da sifofi da fasali na jikin jiki wanda yake canzawa tare kuma yana kiyaye su. Amma ran dan Adam ya fi wannan; hali ne. Ruhin ɗan adam ko halin mutum kyakkyawa ne, wata ƙungiya mai girma, wanda aka haɗu don tabbatattun dalilai, wakilai daga duk umarni na sauko rayuka. Halin mutum ko ruhin ɗan adam yana haɗuwa kuma yana haɗawa da waje da azancin ciki da gabobin jikinsu, kuma yana tsarawa da kuma daidaita ayyukan aikinsu da na kwakwalwa, kuma yana kiyaye kwarewa da ƙwaƙwalwa cikin tsawon lokacin rayuwarsa. Amma idan ba a ta da jikin ɗan adam daga halin ɗan adam ba - idan bai zama tunani ba - to rai ko halin mutum zai mutu. Dole ne mutum ya zama abin tunani kafin mutuwa. Wannan zama hankali yana nufin mutum yana sane da asalin kansa ban da kuma ban da jiki na zahiri da waje da azancin sa. Tare da mutuwar hali ko ran ɗan Adam wakilan waɗanda ke wakilta sun saku. Sun kõma zuwa ga umarninsu na sauka daga rai, don sake shiga cikin rayuwar mutum. Lokacin da ran dan Adam ya mutu ba lallai bane kuma ba yawanci ake rasa shi ba. Akwai a ciki wanda ba ya mutu lokacin da za a lalatar da jikinsa da sihirinsa. Cewar ran dan Adam wanda baya mutuwa, kwayar cuta ce mara ganuwa, kwayar halittar mutum, wacce ake kira da sabon halin mutum ko kuma jikin mutum wanda a kera shi aka gina sabon jikin mutum. Abin da ke kiran kwayar cutar mutum ko rai shine tunani, lokacin da waccan tunani ta kasance a shirye ko kuma suna shirin zama cikin jiki. Sake sake fasalin rayuwar ɗan adam itace tushen tushen koyarwar tashin matattu.

Don sanin dukkan nau'ikan rayuka mutum yana bukatar nazari da kuma cikakkiyar masaniyar kimiyyar, daga cikinsu sunadarai, ilmin halitta da kuma kimiyyar lissafi. Don haka ya zama dole mu rabu da murgudawar da muke son kira metaphysics. Wannan kalmar zata tsaya ga tsarin tunani daidai ne kuma mai dogaro kamar yadda lissafi yake. Sanye yake da irin wannan tsarin kuma tare da hujjojin kimiyya, sannan zamu sami ingantaccen ilimin halin dan Adam, kimiyyar ruhi. Idan mutum yaso zai samu.

Aboki [HW Percival]