Kalmar Asalin

THE

WORD

MATA, 1907.


Copyright, 1907, da HW PERCIVAL.

MUTANE DA ABUWA.

Wani aboki daga jihohin Tsakiya ya tambaya: Shin ba daidai ba ne a yi amfani da tunanin mutum maimakon na hanyar jiki don warkar da cututtukan jiki?

Tambayar ta mamaye filin da ya fi girma girma da ba daidai ba don amsa "ee" ko "a'a." Akwai wasu lokuta inda mutum ya barata cikin amfani da ikon tunani don shawo kan cututtukan jiki, wanda a sa'ilin zamu ce ba laifi bane. A mafi yawancin lokuta ba daidai bane a yi amfani da hankali maimakon hanyar hanyan da za'a magance cutar ta jiki. Ta yaya zamu yanke shawara a kan waɗanne lokuta daidai ne kuma ba daidai ba? Za'a iya ganin wannan kawai gwargwadon ka’idar aikin. Idan mun tabbatar da ka’idar manufa hanyar da muke amfani da ita za ta zama daidai da ita kuma don haka daidai ne. Don a iya yin amsar tambayar gabaɗaya ba wai ga wani al'amari na musamman ba, in dai an fahimci manufar mutum zai iya yin amfani da shi a kowane takamaiman lamari kuma a ƙayyade ko daidai ne ko ba daidai ba don warkar da cututtukan jiki ta kwakwalwa tunani. Bari mu gano ka'idar: Shin abubuwan rashin lafiya na zahiri ne, ko kuwa iskanci ne? Idan rashin lafiyar ta zama hujja to lallai zasu zama sanadin haddasawa. Idan abin da ake kira rashin lafiyar ta jiki rashi ne to ba rashin lafiyar jiki bane kwata-kwata, gaskantawa ne. Idan aka ce cuta ba cuta ce ta hankali kuma cutar ta wanzu ne a cikin tunani ba a jikin mutum ba to kuwa wawancin ba cuta ce ta zahiri ba, hauka ce. Amma yanzu ba za mu iya magance mahaukaci ba; muna damuwa da rashin lafiyar jiki. Abun izuwa to cewa rashin lafiyar abubuwa tabbatacce ne, zamu ce waɗannan tabbaci sakamako ne. Mataki na gaba shine neman musabbabin wadannan tasirin. Idan har zamu iya gano dalilin cutar ta zahiri zamu iya magance rashin lafiyar ta hanyar cire abinda ya haifar da taimakawa yanayin gyara lalacewa. Rashin lafiya na jiki na iya zama sanadiyyar dalilai na zahiri ko na rashin hankali. Dole ne a warkar da cututtukan da suke haifar ta hanyar jiki. Abubuwan rashin lafiyar na jiki waɗanda suke da dalilai na hankali, yakamata a cire hanyar hankali na rashin lafiyar sannan kuma ya kamata a kyale yanayi don sake inganta jituwa ta jiki. Idan abubuwanda muka gabata sunyi daidai, yanzu zamu iya cewa duk wani cuta ta jiki wacce take da sanyin jiki to yakamata a kula dashi da tunani, kuma duk wani cuta ta jiki wacce ta taso daga dalilin hankali to yakamata a cire abubuwanda ke haifar da yanayin zai gyara rashin lafiyar. Matsalar gaba da za a cire don gano hanyarmu ita ce yanke hukunci game da abin da rashin lafiyar ke haifar da cututtukan jiki, da kuma rashin lafiyar da ke haifar da hankali. Cuts, raunuka, kasusuwa mai fashewa, sprains da makamantan haka, ana haifar da su ta hanyar hulɗa kai tsaye da maganganun zahiri kuma ya kamata a sami magani na zahiri. Cututtukan kamar amfani, ciwon sukari, gout, locomotor ataxia, ciwon huhu, dyspepsia da cutar Brights, ana haifar da su ta hanyar abinci mara kyau da kuma sakaci na jiki. Wajibi ne waɗannan su warke ta hanyar kula da jiki sosai da kuma wadatar da shi da abinci mai kyau, wanda zai kawar da kusancin sanadin rashin lafiyar jiki kuma zai ba yanayi damar maido da lafiyar ta. Cutar cututtukan jiki wadanda suke haifar da sanadiyyar tunani, kamar juyayi, da cututtukan da ke tattare da amfani da abubuwan maye, kwayoyi da barasa, da cututtukan da ke tattare da tunani da ayyukan lalata, yakamata a warke ta hanyar kawar da dalilin cutar, da kuma taimakawa yanayi don dawo da daidaiton jiki ta abinci mai kyau, tsabtaccen ruwa, iska mai tsabta da hasken rana.

 

Shin daidai ne a ƙoƙarin ƙoƙarin magance cututtuka ta jiki ta hanyar kulawa da hankali?

A'a! Ba daidai bane a yi ƙoƙarin warkar da cutar ta wani ta hanyar "kula da hankali", saboda mutum zai cutar da mafi muni fiye da mai kyau. Amma mutum na da 'yancin ya yi ƙoƙarin warkar da wata matsala ta damuwarsa kuma ƙoƙarin zai iya haɗuwa da sakamako mai amfani idan har bai yi ƙoƙarin sanya kansa ya yi imani cewa ba shi da lafiya ba.

 

Idan ya dace don warkar da cututtuka ta jiki ta hanyar tunanin mutum, samar da cututtuka na jiki yana da asalin tunanin mutum, me ya sa ba daidai ba ne ga tunanin mutum ko Krista na Krista don ya warkar da wadanda bala'i ta hanyar kulawa da hankali?

Kuskure ne saboda kirista da masana kimiyyar tunani ba su san hankali ko dokokin da ke yin hukunci da sarrafa ayyukan hankali ba; saboda a mafi yawan lokuta masanin ilimin halayyar, rashin sanin dalilin kwakwalwa na rashin lafiyar jiki, kuma galibi musun kasancewar rashin lafiyar, yana kokarin aiwatar da magani ta hanyar bada umarnin tunanin mai haƙuri ko kuma bayar da shawara ga tunanin mai yi haƙuri cewa ya fi marasa lafiya ko kuma rashin lafiyar tafinci ne kawai; saboda haka, saboda rashin sanin dalilin ko ingantacciyar tasirin hankalinsa a kan mai haƙuri dangane da mara lafiya, musamman idan aka yi watsi da cutar ko kuma a ɗauke shi a matsayin mayaudari, to bashi da wata ma'ana a cikin magani. Har yanzu, idan dalilinsa na da gaskiya a ƙoƙarin maganin mai haƙuri kuma sakamakon ya nuna yana da amfani, har yanzu irin wannan magani zai zama ba daidai ba idan masanin kimiyyar kwakwalwa ya yarda ko ya kashe kuɗi don maganin.

 

Me ya sa ba daidai ba ne ga masana kimiyyar tunani su karbi kuɗi don magance cututtuka na jiki ko na rashin hankali yayin da likitocin sun biya kudaden kuɗin kuɗin?

It would be much better were the State to pay or maintain physicians for the people, but inasmuch as this is not so the physician is justified in asking fees; because, in the first place he makes no pretense of occult power by mental processes, whereas he does recognize physical ills to be facts, and does treat them by physical means, and treating them by physical means he has a right to physical remuneration. It is not so in the case of the mental or other scientist, because he claims to cure by means of the mind, and money should not be concerned with the mind in the cure of disease, as money is used for and applied to physical purposes. If, therefore, the physical ill was called a delusion, he would have no right to take physical money for the treatment of that which did not exist; but if he did admit the physical ill and cure it by mental processes he would still have no right to receive money because the benefit received should be of the kind as the benefit given, and the benefit being from the mind the only pay should be the satisfaction of knowing that benefit had been given. The benefit received should be received on the same plane in which benefit is given and vice versa.

 

Me yasa ba daidai ba ne ga masanin kimiyya na tunani ya karbi kuɗi domin maganin cutar yayin da ya ba da cikakken lokaci zuwa wannan aikin kuma dole ne ya sami kudi ya rayu?

Domin duk wanda ya karɓi kuɗi ba zai iya dawo da cikakkiyar lafiya ga wanda yake da cuta ba yayin da mai hankali zai kasance mai warkar da tunanin kuɗi ne. Mutum ba zai yi amfani da lalataccen mutum ba, mai rikicewa da fasikanci don koyar da inganta ɗabi'un kansa ko 'ya'yansa; kuma babu wanda ya isa yayi amfani da masanin kimiyya ko masanin kimiyya don warkar da shi ko abokan sa lokacin da kwakwalwar "masanin kimiyya" ke shiga tare da cutar da ƙananan ƙwayar cuta. Daidai ne a faɗi cewa mai warkarwa na tunani yana warkarwa don ƙaunar warkarwa da kuma amfanar da 'yan'uwansa maza. Idan wannan gaskiya ne, kuma tambayar kuɗi ba ta shiga tunaninsa zai yi tawaye ba a tunanin karɓar kuɗi; saboda tunanin kudi da kuma ƙaunar abokiyar ɗan'uwan ba su kasance a kan jirgin sama ɗaya ba kuma sun kasance rarrabuwan halayen su. Saboda haka, lokacin da aka ba da shawarar kudi don biyan kuɗin da aka samu, mai warkarwa zai ƙi shi idan ya warkar da kawai ƙaunar ɗan'uwansa. Wannan shine ainihin gwajin warkarwa. Amma ana tambaya ta yaya zai sadaukar da dukkan lokacinsa ga aikinsa kuma ya rayu ba tare da karbar kudi ba? Amsar mai sauki ce: Yanayi zai samar da duk waɗanda suke ƙaunarta da gaske kuma waɗanda suka sadaukar da rayukansu don taimaka mata cikin ayyukanta, amma gwaje-gwaje masu yawa suna gwada su kafin a karɓa su kuma an tanadar musu. Daya daga cikin bukatun da ministarta da likitancin take shine ya kasance yana da tsarkakakkiyar zuciya, ko kuma cewa hankalin shi ya kubuta daga son samun son kai. Tunanin cewa mai warkarwa yana da kyakkyawan nufin ɗan adam ga ɗan adam da sha'awar taimakawa ta hanyar warkaswa ta tunani. Idan yana da kowane iko na halitta kuma ya sami nasara tare da kowane irin nasara, marasa lafiyarsa a zahiri suna sha'awar nuna godiyarsu, kuma suna ba shi kuɗi, duk da cewa bai bukaci hakan ba. Idan ya neme shi ko ya karba hakan nan take ya tabbatar da cewa shi ba wanda dabi’ar take so ba; idan da farko ya ki yarda ya sake gwadawa, kuma ya gano cewa yana da bukatar kudi, kuma idan aka roke shi ya zama dole lamari yakan tilasta shi yin hakan; kuma karɓar kuɗin duk da kyakkyawar niyyarsa in ba haka ba zai kasance, ita ce farkon hanyar inoculating hankalinsa tare da microbe-money — kamar yadda ya tabbatar da zama yanayin mafi yawan masu warkarwa. Microarancin ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwayar cuta yana cutar da tunaninsa, cutar ta kudi tana haɓaka tare da nasararsa, kuma kodayake yana iya bayyana don amfanar da marasa lafiya a wani sashi na yanayinsu zai lalata su a wani ɓangaren don, duk da cewa ba da saninsa ba, ya zama lalata da ba shi da lafiya kuma ba zai iya faɗakar da masu cutar da kansa ba. Yana iya ɗaukar lokaci mai tsawo, amma kwayar cutar tasa za ta yi tushe a cikin tunanin masu haƙuri, kuma cutar za ta barke a cikin mafi rauni daga yanayin rayuwarsu. Don haka ba daidai bane ga wanda zaiyi tasiri na warkarwa na dindindin don karɓar kuɗi, saboda ba zai iya warkar da dindindin ba idan ya karɓi kuɗi, duk da haka sakamakon yana bayyana akan abubuwa. A gefe guda, idan kawai muradinsa shine ya amfanar da wasu maimakon neman kuɗi ta hanyar warkarwa to yanayin zai wadatar masa.

 

Yaya yanayi zai tanadar wa wanda yake so ya amfana da wasu, amma wanda ba zai iya taimaka wa kansa ba?

In saying that nature will provide we do not mean that she will shower money into his lap or that unseen forces will nourish him or birds feed him. There is an unseen side of nature, and there is the side which is seen. Nature does her real work on the unseen side of her domain, but the results of her work appear on the surface in the visible world. It is not possible for every man to become a healer, but if one among many should feel that he had the natural faculty and decide that he would like to make healing his life’s work, then such a man would do his work spontaneously. In nearly every such case he would discover that his finances would not allow him to devote all his time to healing unless he received money. If he accepted money nature would not accept him. He would fail at the first test. If he refused money and devoted only such time to healing as his circumstances would permit, then if he had the natural ability and his duties to the world and to his family did not prevent, he would find his position in life to be gradually changing. With continued desire to devote his time gratuitously to work for humanity, his circumstances and relation to humanity would continue to change until he finds himself in such a position, financially and otherwise, as to allow of his giving his entire time to his work. But, of course, if he had the thought in his mind that nature was thus intending to provide for him, that very thought would have disqualified him for his work. The knowledge must grow gradually with his development. Such are the facts, which can be seen in the lives of many of nature’s ministers. But to see the proceedings of nature in developing the facts, one must be able to work with nature and to observe her workings below the surface of things.

 

Shin masana kimiyya na Krista da na tunani ba sa yin kyau idan sunyi warkaswa inda likitoci suka kasa?

Wanda yake duban sakamakon kai tsaye ba tare da sanin mizanin da ya shafi ba, zai iya cewa, haka ne. Amma muna cewa, a'a! Domin babu wanda zai iya aiwatar da nagarta ta dindindin ba tare da wani mummunan sakamako ba idan rukunin gidansa ba daidai ba ne kuma idan bai san ka'idodin da ya ƙunsa ba. Baya ga batun kudi, hankalin mutum ko wani mai warkarwa kusan yakan zama yana fara ayyukansa da wuraren da bai dace ba, kuma ba tare da sanin ka'idodin da ke tattare da tunaninsa ba. Hujjar cewa suna yin wasu cututtukan yana tabbatar da cewa basu san komai ba game da ayyukan kwakwalwa, kuma suna tabbatar da cewa basu cancanci amfani da taken “masanin kimiyya” wanda suke da'awa ba. Idan za su iya nuna cewa sun san yadda hankali ke aiki dangane da wasu cututtukan da za su iya zama masu ƙwaƙwalwa don kula da wasu, duk da cewa ba za su iya zama masu ƙoshin halin kirki ba.

 

Wane ma'auni ne muke da shi game da abin da bukatun mutum ya kamata masanin kimiyyar tunani ya kamata?

Don samun ƙwarewar tunani don bi da wani mai hankali ɗaya zai iya saita kansa matsala ko kuma samun wata matsala da aka bashi wacce ya ci gaba da magancewa. Yakamata ya iya duba ayyukansa na tunani yayin aiwatar da tunani yayin warware matsalar kuma bawai kawai yaga wadannan dabarun tunani ba a fili kamar motsin tsuntsu a cikin dukkan jirgin sama, ko kuma zanen zane mai zane. , ko zanen tsari ta hanyar mai zanen gini, amma kuma yakamata ya fahimci tsarin tunaninsa koda zai ji kuma yasan halayyar tsuntsu da dalilin tashinta, da kuma jin motsin marubucin kuma yasan yanayin hotonsa, kuma biye da tunanin mai zancen kuma san dalilin ƙirar sa. Idan har zai iya yin hakan, hankalinsa zai iya yin aiki da salati tare da zuciyar wani. Amma akwai wannan gaskiyar: Idan har ya iya yin hakan to bazai taɓa yin ƙoƙarin warkewa ta hanyoyin tunani na zahiri ba waɗanda suke da dalilai na zahiri, kuma ba zai taɓa yin ƙoƙarin warkar da cututtukan jiki ta hanyar "kula da hankalin wani," a dalilin cewa babu daya na iya warkar da hankalin wani. Kowane tunani dole ne ya zama likitan kansa idan zai iya haifar da maganin warkewa. Abinda kawai zai iya yi shine shine tabbatar da gaskiyar yanayin rashin lafiyar zuwa zuciyar wani, kuma a nuna asalin cutar da yadda za'a cutar da ita. Ana iya yin wannan ta hanyar magana da baki kuma baya buƙatar kulawa da tunanin mutum ko bayyanannen sihiri. Amma idan aka ga gaskiya to ta kan zama tushen asasin Ilimin kwakwalwa da na Kiristanci don ya musanta ra'ayoyin duka biyun.

 

A wace hanyoyi ne damar biyan aiki na mutum ko wani abu, da kuma ganin dalilin da ya sa, ya karyata hakikanin malaman kimiyya da tunanin Krista?

Da'awar dukkan nau'ikan “masana kimiyya” suna cikin nau'in musantawa da tabbatarwa. Samun matsayin malamai da masu warkarwa sun tabbatar da ikon su na koyar da asirin duniyar tunani a matsayin kimiyya. Suna da'awar rashin kasancewar kwayoyin halitta da karfin tunani, ko kuma sun musanta wanzuwar mugunta, cuta da mutuwa. Amma duk da haka sun kafa kansu a matsayin shugabanni a duniyar kimiyyar lissafi don tabbatar da cewa kwayoyin halitta basa wanzu, cewa babu mugunta, kuma babu wata cuta, babu wata mace, cutar babu kuskure, mutuwa karya ce. Amma ba tare da kasancewar kwayoyin halitta ba, cuta da kuskure, ba za su iya rayuwa kamar yadda suke yi ba ta hanyar karɓar kuɗi don maganin cutar da babu ita, kuma ba za su iya kafa majami'u da makarantu masu tsada ba don koyar da rashin kasancewar cutar, kwayoyin halitta da mugunta. Sunan kimiyya, wanda masana kimiyya suka samu da kuma aiki da shi ga dokokin da za a iya gasktawa a karkashin yanayin da suka riga aka kaddara, sai su dauka, sannan kuma sun musanta wadannan dokokin. Jin da kansu sukeyi, suna yaudarar wasu, don haka suke rayuwa cikin duniyar rudu, kansu suka kirkira. Thearfin gani na ayyukan tunani, ya ɓatar da tunanin mutum daga zato domin yana nuna tushen sakamako na zahiri daga abubuwan da suka shafi tunani, kamar aikin ƙiyayya, tsoro, fushi, ko sha'awar sha'awa. Ikon ganin aiki na zuciyar mutum shima yana kawo wajan nazarin jikin mutum a matsayin wani abu ban da tunani, kuma duk wannan yana tabbatar da hujjoji akan kowane jirgi na aiki da kuma aikin hankali akan kowane jirgin sama. Zuciyar da aka bunkasa ba zata taba amincewa da ikirarin masana kimiyyar tunani ko na kirista ba saboda wadannan da'awar za a san cewa ba daidai bane, kuma idan daya daga cikin “masana kimiyya” zai iya ganin gaskiyar kowane jirgin sama ba zai iya wanzuwa ba “ masanin kimiyya "kuma a lokaci guda ganin abubuwan gaskiya.

 

Mene ne sakamakon sakamakon yarda da aiki na koyarwar Krista ko masana kimiyyar tunani?

Sakamakon, na ɗan lokaci, ya bayyana kamar yana da amfani sosai a mafi yawan lokuta saboda ɓacin rai da aka kirkiro sabo ne kuma rayayyar ruɗar na iya kasancewa na ɗan lokaci da na wani lokaci kawai. Amma dole ne a samu sakamako daga kowane rudu, wanda zai zo da shi mummunan sakamako. Koyarwa da aiwatar da koyarwar su na daga cikin manyan laifuffuka da suka shafi cin zarafin bil'adama kamar yadda yake tilasta wa mutum ya karyata gaskiya yayin da suke a kowane jirgin sama. Zuciyar da aka bi da shi ba shi da ikon rarrabe gaskiya da zato, kuma ta haka ne ya gaza gano gaskiyar lamarin kowane jirgin sama. Hankalin ya zama mara kyau, mara tabbas, kuma zai musanta ko ya tabbatar da duk abin da aka umurce shi da juyin halitta don haka ya kama, to yana iya zama lalacewa.

 

Me yasa yawancin masu warkar da hankalin suna da wadata idan basa tasiri, kuma idan ba sune suka wakilci kansu ba to, masu jinyarsu ba zasu gano gaskiyar ba?

All healers are not intentional frauds. Some of them believe that they are doing good, even though they may not examine too closely into their motives. A successful mental healer is prosperous because he has allied himself to and become a servant of the great Spirit of the Earth, and the Earth Spirit rewards him. That they do effect cures no one who knows of them or their work will deny. But the means and processes by which the cures are effected, the healers themselves do not know. A healer would naturally not be expected to represent himself in an unfavorable light to a patient, but all patients do not see the healer in the light in which he would have them see him. If we believed some of the patients who have been treated by healers, these would be seen in an unfavorable light. One of the questions arising as to the treatment of patients, is what an unprincipled healer might suggest to his patient when that patient is either under mental control or at least sufficiently en rapport to receive his suggestions. It would not be astonishing to know that there are dishonest healers in the mental profession, as there are in every trade or profession. The opportunity and temptation offered to an unprincipled man is great, in that by mental suggestion or control it is an easy matter to affect the mind of a generous and grateful patient to insist on the healer’s acceptance of a large fee or gift, especially when the patient believes that he has been benefited.

 

Shin Yesu da mabiyan tsarkaka ba su warkar da cututtuka ta jiki ta hanyar tunanin mutum ba kuma idan haka ba daidai bane?

An yi iƙirarin, kuma mun yi imani da cewa mai yiwuwa ne kuma gaskiya ne, cewa Yesu da tsarkaka da yawa sun warkar da rashin lafiyar ta zahiri ta hanyar tunani kuma ba mu da wata wata ba wajen cewa ba laifi bane, idan sun san abin da suke yi. Cewa Yesu ya san abin da yake yi na haifar da warkaswa ba mu da wata shakka, kuma da yawa cikin tsarkakan ma sun mallaki ilimi da yawa don ɗabi'a mai kyau ga ɗan adam, amma Yesu da tsarkaka ba su sami kuɗi don maganin rashin lafiya ba. Lokacin da aka kawo wannan tambayar ta waɗanda ke fifita aikin masu warkarwa ba koyaushe suke tsayawa su yi tunanin wannan gaskiyar ba. Yaya sabanin Yesu da ba da gangan ba ga alama ga Yesu ko almajiransa ko wani daga cikin tsarkaka don cajin kusan kowace ziyarar mai haƙuri, warkarwa ko babu magani, ko kuma cajin daga biyar zuwa sama da dala ɗari na darasi, a azuzuwan , don koya wa almajirai yadda ake warkarwa. Domin Yesu ya warkar da marasa lafiya da yawa babu lasisi ga mutum ya kafa kansa cikin kasuwancin warkarwa. Duk wanda ya yarda ya yi rayuwa irin ta Yesu kamar yadda ya iya, to yana da 'yancin warkarwa, amma zai warkar da kaunarsa ga ɗan'uwan sa, kuma ba zai taɓa samun sakamako ba. Yesu ya warkar da sani. Lokacin da yace “an gafarta maka zunubanka,” wannan kawai yana nuna cewa mai wahala ya biya hukuncin zunuban sa. Sanin wannan yesu yayi amfani da iliminsa da ikonsa don yaye shi daga ci gaba da wahala, ta haka yayi aiki daidai da yadda ya sabawa doka. Yesu, ko wani tare da ilimi, ba zai gaskata duk wanda ya zo gare shi ba, amma waɗanda zai warkar da shi ne cikin dokar. Shi da kanshi bai shigo karkashin doka ba. Ya kasance sama da dokar; kuma da kasancewa a samansa yana iya ganin duk waɗanda suka shiga ƙarƙashin dokar kuma sun sha wahala daga hakan. Zai iya kawar da cuta ta jiki, halin ɗabi'a, ko tunanin mutum. Ya warkar da masu halin ɗabi'a a gare shi lokacin da suka jimre wa wahalar da suka wajaba don sa su ga kuskuren su, da kuma lokacin da suka fi son yin aiki mafi kyau. Wadanda cututtukan su suka samo asali daga dalilai na tunani za a iya warkewa kawai lokacin da aka biye wa bukatun dabi'ar zahiri, lokacin da aka canza ɗabi'unsu, da kuma lokacin da suke son ɗaukar nauyin mutum ɗaya da yin aikinsu. Lokacin da irin wannan ya zo wurin Yesu ya yi amfani da iliminsa da ikonsa don ya kawar da su daga wahala domin sun biya bashin da ke kansu, sun tuba daga aikata ba daidai ba, kuma a cikin yanayinsu suna shirye su ɗauka. Bayan ya warke ta sai ya ce: “Ku tafi, ku daina yin zunubi.”

 

Idan ba daidai ba ne a karɓi kuɗi don warkar da cututtukan jiki ta hanyar tunani, ko don ba da 'koyarwar kimiyya,' Shin ba laifi ba ne malamin makaranta ya karɓi kuɗi don koyar da ɗalibai a kowane rukuni na koyo?

Babu ɗan kwatanci da za a yi tsakanin malamin ko mai warkarwa na Ilimin tunani ko na Kiristanci da malami a makarantun koyo. Iyakar abin da suka yi kama da ita ita ce, koyarwar duka biyu tana da alaƙa da tunanin masu haƙuri ko ɗalibai. In ba haka ba sun bambanta a cikin abin da suke da'awa, manufa, tsari, da kuma sakamakon. Dalibin makarantun yasan cewa alkalumma suna da wasu ƙimomin; cewa ninka adadin lambobi koyaushe yana da sakamako iri ɗaya, kuma ba zai taba ba, a kowane irin yanayi malami yakan gaya wa ɗalibin cewa sau uku sau huɗu ne, ko kuma sau biyu ke yin sha biyu. Da zarar ɗalibi ya koyi girma, koyaushe zai iya tabbatar da gaskiyar gaskiyar ko shaidar zurwar bayanin wani a cikin adadin lambobi. Babu yadda za'ai warkarwa ya iya koyar da dalibin haƙuri da kowane irin abu daidai. Masanin ya fahimci nahawu da lissafi don dalilai da dacewa ga daidaitaccen tsari da kuma sauƙin bayyana tunaninsa ga waɗansu masu hankali. Mai warkar da hankalin mutum ko masanin ilimin kimiyya ba ya koyar da dalibinsa ta hanyar dokoki ko misali don tabbatar da shi ko karyata bayanan wasu, ko shirya tunanin nasa da bayyana shi ta hanyar da wayo ga wasu wadanda ba nasu ba ne, ko kuma ya ba da damar imaninsa da kuma tabbacinsa su tsaya akan abubuwan da suka cancanta da su. Makarantun koyo na wanzu ne don ba wa dalibi damar fahimtar gaskiyar jirgin sama da yake zaune, ya zama mai amfani, kuma ɗan ƙasa mai hankali. "Mai ilimin kimiyya" mai warkarwa baya tabbatarwa ko tabbatar da da'awar wani "masanin kimiyya" ta hanyar kansa, haka nan kuma ɗalibin mai warkarwa shine tabbatar da gaskiyar ikirarin nasa ko na wani malami da kowane irin matsayin sahihi; amma dalibin makarantu na iya kuma ya tabbatar da abin da ya koya na gaskiya ko na karya. Malaman makarantu baya yin kwatancen koyar da warkaswar cututtukan jiki ta hanyar tunani, amma “masanin kimiyya” yayi, don haka baya cikin aji daya da malami a makarantu. Malami a makarantu yana horar da hankalin ɗalibinsa don fahimtar abubuwan da suke bayyane ga masu hankali, kuma yana karɓar kuɗin sa a cikin kuɗi wanda ke tabbaci ga hankalin mutum; amma masanin tunani ko Kiristanci yana horar da tunanin mai haƙuri-ɗalibansa don musantawa, musun, da kuma kafirci hujjoji waɗanda ke bayyane ga masu hankali, kuma a lokaci guda yana biyan kuɗinsa a cikin kuɗi, da kuma gwargwadon shaidar hankali. Don haka ga alama babu laifi a cikin karɓar malamin makarantar a matsayin biyan bashin ayyukansa gwargwadon jirgin sama da yake zaune yana koyarwa; alhali ba daidai bane ga masanin kimiyyar tunani ko masanin kimiyar kirista yayi da'awar warkarwa ko koyarwa bisa dalilai na hankali, kuma a lokaci guda ya dauki ko kwalliya daidai gwargwadon hankalin da ya musanta, amma duk da haka ya ji daɗin hakan. Amma a ce ba daidai ba ne ga malamin makarantu ya karɓi kuɗi don ayyukansa.

Aboki [HW Percival]